Basic Astronomy

Mars


Mars is the 4th planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System.

Mars is named after the Roman God of war.

Mars is often described as the "Red Planet" due to its reddish appearance. The reddish color comes from the iron oxide on the surface of Mars.

Mars
Equatorial diameter
(Earth diameter)
Mass
(Earth mass)
Orbital radius
(AU)
Orbital period
(years)
Inclination
to Sun's
equator
(degree)
Orbital eccentricityRotation period
(days)
No. of
confirmed moons
0.5320.111.521.885.650.0931.032

Moons of Mars

NameImageMass (kg)DiameterSemi-major axisOrbital periodAverage moonrise period
PhobosPhobos10.8×1015(27×21.6×18.8) km9,377 km (5,827 mi)7.66 h11.12 h (0.463 d)
DeimosDeimos2×1015(10×12×16) km23,460 km (14,580 mi)30.35 h131 h (5.44 d)

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